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Cinnamon has been reported to have significant benefits for human health, particularly as an anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic agent, mainly due to its phytochemical components such as phenolic and volatile compounds.
The phytochemicals present in cinnamon can be extracted from different parts of the plant by distillation and extraction with solvents.
The use of cinnamon in food and its ability to prevent oxidation and inhibit microbial growth are covered in this review. Biological accessibility, safety, and consumer acceptance are discussed comprehensively.
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This review also clearly shows the way cinnamon is used as an ingredient in functional foods.
In the past few decades, shoppers have chosen foods not just for their organic process values how ever conjointly for his or her further health benefits therefore, useful foods became more and more popular.
useful foods are foods that may improve physical or mental health, decrease the danger of some illness, and cure some diseases.
Nevertheless, the regulative definition of functional food varies among regulatory bodies.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, “Functional foods outlined as whole foods together with fortified, enriched, or increased foods that have a probably help full impact on health once consumed as a part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels ”.
The Institute of Food Technologists in short explains useful foods as “Foods ANd food parts that offer a health profiton the far side basic nutrition (for the intended population).
per the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, “FOSHU (Food for such as Health Uses) refers to foods containing an ingredient with functions for health and formally approved to say its physiological effects on the human body.
” FOSHU is meant to be consumed for the maintenance/promotion of health or for specific health effects by those thatwantto regulate their health, as well as their vital sign or blood cholesterol.
Functional foods haven’thowever been law fully outlined in Europe; however, within the work of Stein and useful food is defined as “food that’s taken as a part ofthe standard diet and has helpfulimpacts that transcendancientorganic process effects.
From these classifications, it can be summarized that having a “beneficial effect on health” is that the main requirement.
Additionally, it could be terminated that functional foods may be made by enriching the components/ingredients in food to boost its beneficial health effect.
In the past ten years, a large number of new functional foods and ingredients have been continuously developed in response to the growth in the functional food market. Examples of functional nutritional ingredients include vitamins, minerals, probiotics, phytosterols, and antioxidants.
To date, one of the highest priority goals in the development of functional food is to protect the human body against reactive oxidative species and to protect the human body from cancer.
In the current decade, there has been a growing interest in using herbs and spices as antioxidants and anticancer agents.
Cinnamon (genus Cinnamon, family Lauraceae) is one of the spices rich in structural diversity of phytochemically active compounds with antioxidant properties.
Cinnamomum verum (also known as Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ceylon cinnamon or true cinnamon) and Cinnamomum cassia (also known as Cassia cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon) are the most common species in the world.
These factories are considered of economic importance due to their wide uses in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
However, the genus Cinnamomum actually consists of about 250 species with a distinct genetic makeup and phenotype.
Currently, the structural and functional characteristics of most species are still poorly studied.
Phytochemical composition of cinnamon
Cinnamon bark, leaves, twigs, roots, wood and fruit can be easily used to produce volatile oils (essential oils) by distillation and oleoresin by solvent extraction.
Herbs obtained by treating spices first with a solvent and then removing the solvent.
Several factors influence the chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil and oleoresin.
A large number of studies have been published on the effects of species, origin and part of the plant on the chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil.
showed that it’s species differ significantly in their flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity, whereas growth methods, both organic and conventional, had no significant effect on total phenolic compounds and parameters of antioxidant capacity.
The age of the bark and leaves of cinnamon significantly affects the chemical composition of essential oils and oleoresin.
The method of extraction and the type of solvent have a significant influence on the chemical properties of cinnamon extract. Accordingly, they greatly affect the antioxidant capacity as well.
Potential benefits of cinnamon for human health
Influencing blood sugar levels
Animal studies have shown that cassia cinnamon may reduce blood sugar levels, according to a 2015 review.
The review also noted that after 60 people with type 2 diabetes ate up to 6 grams (g) of cinnamon per day for between 40 days and 4 months, they had lower blood glucose, triglycerides, and lower lipoprotein cholesterol. Density, total cholesterol.
However, according to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), a 2012 review concluded that cinnamon does not help lower levels of glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin A1c — long-term measures of blood glucose control — in people of the type. Diabetes 1 or type 2.
Another small study looked at the effect of cinnamon, calcium, and zinc on managing blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes. The results did not show that this treatment had any effect.
Improving fungal infections
it’s oil may help treat some types of fungal infections.
A 2016 lab study found that cinnamon oil was effective against a type of Candida that affects the bloodstream. This may be due to its antimicrobial properties.
If additional research confirms these findings, cinnamon oil could play a role in treating this type of infection.
Preventing Alzheimer’s disease
Some animal studies have suggested that it may help prevent Alzheimer’s disease.
According to researchers, the extract in cinnamon bark, called CEppt, has properties that may prevent symptoms from developing.
The mice that received the extract experienced a reduction in features of Alzheimer’s disease, such as amyloid plaques, and improvements in their ability to reason and reason.
If additional research confirms its efficacy, this extract – but not necessarily whole cinnamon – may be useful in developing treatments for Alzheimer’s disease.
Protecting against HIV
In 2000, a studyTrusted Source of Indian Medicinal Plant Extracts found that cinnamon may help protect against HIV.
Scientists tested 69 extracts in the lab. Cinnamomum cassia, or cinnamon bark, and Cardiospermum Helicacabum, a cinnamon fruit and fruit, were most effective in reducing the activity of HIV.
In a 2016 lab study, scientists found that an extract of cinnamon showed anti-HIV activity.
This does not mean that foods that contains it can treat or prevent HIV, but it’s extracts could one day become part of an HIV treatment.
The development of functional foods should be a priority to respond to global health problems.
Functional foods can be engineered by supplementing with an active ingredient known for its health benefits.
The long list of beneficial physiological effects of it indicates that it can be considered an essential part of the human diet.
The use of cinnamon in an innovative functional food product is strategically and technically feasible; However, the path to achieving this goal is long and difficult.
A series of investigations into natural product chemistry, in vitro bioassay, biopharmaceutical, animal experiments and clinical studies are still required.
The information obtained from those studies is required to create functional foods that promote human health.
Given the research path, there is a need for collaboration between scholars from different fields of research to build valid methodology and avoid incorrect evaluation.